Tag Archives: design

Make Models: FC Barcelona

Client FC Barcelona
Scale 1:200
Dimensions 700mm(l) x 500mm(w) x 300mm(h)
Time to make 1 week
Materials Clear filament and white selective laser sintering (SLS)
Model makers Paul Miles and Petre Craciun from Make, and Digits2Widgets

The project
In 2016 Make came second in a hotly contested international competition to design the Nou Palau Blaugrana stadium for FC Barcelona. In partnership with Baena Casamor Arquitectes BCQ and MANICA Architecture, we designed a 12,500-seat sports and entertainment destination as part of a wider masterplan.

The model
The model was built as part of our pitch for the project. Split down the middle, the sectional model comprises a white 3D-printed SLS element to show the exterior, and a clear 3D-printed filament section to show the orthogonal stadium, seating and interior.

The floorplates were laser-cut, and the tiered seating was 3D-printed with clear filament to show the viewer what’s going on inside the stadium.

Changeable plates show the different uses of the space in the proposed arena, from hosting basketball and hockey matches to putting on rock concerts.

Removable plate

Each level of the model interlocks around the columns and cores, bringing stability to the structure, and the model sits on a black acrylic base.

Eyes on the prize
We’re immensely proud to have delivered a world-class venue design for a world-class club. The stadium sets new industry standards for arenas around the world; it’s a compact, flexible, functional and highly efficient design that fits within the wider scheme and is rooted in the history of FC Barcelona.

#makemodelmonday

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Make Models: Swindon Museum and Art Gallery

Client Swindon Museum and Art Gallery Trust
Scale 1:100
Dimensions 750mm(l) x 200mm(w) x 550mm(h)
Time to make 1 week
Materials Laser-cut plywood and acrylic, 3D printed items
Model makers Paul Miles and Jonny Prevc

We go behind the scenes of the Make modelshop to find out how the team created one of their most impressive works to date, the 1:100 scale model of our new design for the Swindon Museum and Art Gallery.

SMAG model

The project
In November 2016 Make won a competition to design a new home for the Swindon Museum and Art Gallery (SMAG) in the heart of the town’s burgeoning cultural quarter, next to the Wyvern Theatre. The new building will showcase Swindon’s wide-ranging collection of artefacts, from prehistoric fossils to Roman pottery, and one of the UK’s most important collections of modern and contemporary British art. As a venue, it will engage the public with event spaces, learning centres, and galleries flexible enough to host the museum’s unique permanent collection and visiting exhibitions alike. The public realm around the building will provide a civic square and routes linking to the rest of the town centre and the Old Town.

The model
As part of the competition entry, we created a 1:100 scale model of our proposed design in a natural palette. The 3DS MAX renders were worked up in Rhino CAD modelling software, and the design was split into a series of 2D components for laser-cutting and 3D components for printing, all to be done in-house.

The 2D elements included the floorplates, core and fins, for which we used plywood, and the glazing, which we did with acrylic. These formed the structure of the model and were designed to fit together like a jigsaw, so the floorplates interlocked with the core, and the fins with the floorplates. Plywood was the material of choice as it allowed us to make the fine perforations defining the fins, and was easy to bend into the curved shape of the building’s envelope. The plinth the model sits on is a hollow box, also made from plywood, so despite its size, it’s relatively light and portable!

We 3D-printed a series of miniature display cases and artefacts that reflect SMAG’s real collection, including mannequins in costumes and a collection of typewriters, to bring the model to life. An absolute must was including a tiny replica of Apsley the gharial (a type of crocodile), the museum’s star attraction (pictured). These elements were spray-painted in copper tones to create focal points that draw people’s attention inside the model, and secured using PVA glue. We also 3D-printed all sets of stairs, the rooftop beehives, and people and trees to animate the scene and illustrate landscaping potential, both in and around the building.

One of the final touches was laser-engraving a reimagined Swindon Museum and Gallery logo, which our Graphics team designed, onto the main entrance wall.

Model on tour
The model is now with the Swindon Museum and Art Gallery Trust, where it will hopefully help them to secure the remaining funding they need to realise this new landmark for the town. Before settling there, in March 2017 the model took centre stage at the Osborne Samuel gallery in Mayfair, alongside artwork from the museum’s collection, to help raise awareness of the project.

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Digital Danube

 

Juraj Porubský, editor of Forbes Slovakia, banishes old stereotypes for good with his account of today’s dynamic world of tech in the Danube Valley.

 

 

You pass the Vienna Opera House, go up the stairs to the Albertina gallery, then past the Imperial Butterfly House, and there it is. The Hofburg Palace, heart of the once-mighty Habsburg Monarchy. You enter the majestic building with thoughts of Empress Elisabeth but instead find a completely 21st-century spectacle. The great halls of the palace are lit up by young entrepreneurs, start-ups and chats about the next big business ideas. It is the Pioneers Festival, the biggest start-up summit in the region.

You close your eyes and listen to the mixture of different languages: German, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, but mostly English. If it weren’t for all the English, you could easily imagine going back in time, enjoying the Viennese Café Central, maybe meeting Sigmund Freud. You might take the Pressburger Train from Vienna and jump out in the heart of Pressburg, as Bratislava used to be called. You could stroll the boulevards of Budapest, the most dynamic city of the empire at the beginning of the 20th century, or admire the work of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in the famous Villa Tugendhat from the 1930s, which sits nicely above Brno.

But when you open your eyes again, you’re still at the Hofburg Palace and see that the present is much different from the traditional, romantic view of the Danube Valley. Today it is young, high-tech, open and full of energy. It has a vibrant start-up environment and attracts innovators such as Hyperloop, creators of a mode of transportation with the potential to move passengers faster than aeroplane speed, connecting Vienna and Bratislava with less than ten minutes of travel time.

The Pioneers Festival, now in its sixth year, hosts 2,500 tech innovators from over 100 countries at the Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna. Image copyright Michael Holmes.

Tech change

In a world where computers can be as dangerous as arms, where major elections are won or lost on the battlefields of social media networks, it is the heart of Central Europe that holds the three major cybersecurity companies: Eset, Avast and AVG. Just recently Eset detected the source of the attack on Tesco Bank that took away money from the accounts of 9,000 customers. These companies are global, but with owners and headquarters located in the region, they support the business environment and invest a lot in local real estate projects – like the famous Savoy-Carlton Hotel, in the heart of Bratislava, which was bought by the owners of Eset this year.

If you want to understand the transition this region is going through, just think about other companies – for instance Prezi, a Hungarian software firm that offers a world-class way of making presentations, or Pixel Federation, a Slovak gaming studio whose TrainStation game has over 20 million players worldwide. These businesses have grown from local backgrounds but enjoy the opportunities of the global digital market. They are part of the driving force behind the new development of the local environment.

Starting out in the mid-90s, there was no state aid, no push from universities. Just a bunch of local entrepreneurs with global know-how and some money they earned thanks to the business opportunities presented by the marvellous new world wide web. They understood the power of sharing knowledge, contacts and money, and supporting others to develop interesting new ideas.

After a couple of years, supporting a start-up became a sexy hobby for local businessmen, big corporations and even governments. The EU’s Joint European Resources for Micro to Medium Enterprises (JEREMIE) programme supported the biggest venture fund in Slovakia, pledging €16 million, while Vienna and the Austrian government offer incentives to the Pioneers Festival, which also gets backing from Red Bull’s Austrian cofounder, billionaire Dietrich Mateschitz. South Moravia in the Czech Republic has a great municipality programme for start-ups called JIC. But the core of this movement is entrepreneurs. Nowadays, it’s not just about money but also the talent to execute an idea.

Business engine for development

So how do the region’s cities cope with this fresh wave of economic activity? Of course Vienna regularly enjoys the top spots in many rankings of standard of living, but what about Budapest, Bratislava, Brno? They’ve been all going through massive development, and though the old hearts of these towns will keep their spirit, some of the newer parts will completely change.

As towns attract more and more millennials, some of the old parts will get a much-needed revival. Just think about the famous ‘ruin pubs’ in Budapest’s District VII (the old Jewish Quarter), very close to Andrássy Avenue, a main high street of the Hungarian capital. These formerly empty buildings have been turned into bars (often doubling as cultural venues) that are now an important part of the city’s nightlife and have helped to revitalise the district.

As businesses grow and towns need more offices, some of the brownfields in the region are being completely redeveloped. The best example is the Mlynské Nivy quarter in Bratislava, which used to be occupied by old industrial halls but now will host major blue-chip brands, including Swiss Re, Microsoft, Accenture and PwC. Many of them are bringing their ‘shared services centres’ to Slovakia, employing tens of thousands of people in the country.

The mixed use Sky Park development in Bratislava, by Zaha Hadid Architects. The scheme will deliver three residential towers and two office buildings. Image courtesy Penta Investments.

Danube Valley vision

In case you get lost in this fast-moving new world of Central Europe, you still have the leading navigation company Sygic, based in Bratislava, sitting in the new heart of the town. However, not even the best navigation can solve the problems of infrastructure and transportation. These will continue to be main issues for all the countries coming out of the old socialist era. It will take a lot of public investment and skills to find smart solutions.

Bratislava’s EU funds are mostly limited to infrastructure projects outside of the most developed towns, and after 2020 they will shrink anyway. Money will then have to come from public funds, or private developers will need to calculate extra costs into their projects, a trend you can already see in Bratislava.

Of course you can still be a dreamer, because at the outskirts of Bratislava AeroMobil is building a plant for its flying car. Who knows, maybe we’ll have self-flying cars in the near future that will bring these four countries of the Danube Valley even closer. (A more likely scenario is that they might help people in places like China, Africa or Australia, where infrastructure is often lacking.)

Until then, with distances here easily accessible by car, a common history and a young generation with no borders in their minds, this place offers unique potential for the future. Some people say that the Habsburg Empire was the most prosperous period for this region. I say the coming one can offer much more.

 

Juraj Porubský is the editor-in-chief of Forbes Slovakia and former editor-in-chief of Pravda, one of Slovakia’s major daily newspapers.

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2036: A Floor Space Odyssey

 

 

Property writer Peter Bill takes us through the key points of the City of London’s recently published City Plan 2036: Shaping the Future City.

 

“The best jobs in the future are going to be what I call STEMpathy jobs,” wrote New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman late last year. “Jobs that blend STEM skills (science, technology, engineering, math) with human empathy. We don’t know what many of them will look like yet.” Indeed. But we do know enough about human empathy to know that nothing of much value gets done in spare bedrooms by pyjama-clad loners – something the City of London holds to be true, for the next 20 years at least.

Corporation planners are devoting much of 2017 to figuring out how the Square Mile might look and feel in 2036. Consultation closed last December on the 75-page City Plan 2036: Shaping the Future City, which provides plenty of clues for architects, planning consultants and developers. Clues are embedded in questions and maps showing what they might want and where. A draft local plan will be published this autumn, with adoption chalked in for summer 2019. But this year is for exploring opportunities.

View over Liverpool Street Station of the City of London tower cluster, with Make’s 5 Broadgate in the right foreground. (c) John Madden

Where to start? Begin with the dull but reassuring 187-page London Labour Market Projections 2016, published by the Greater London Authority last June. Key sentence: “Demand for professional occupations, and managers [will account for] three quarters, or 979,000, of additional jobs between 2014 and 2041.” At 100ft² per worker, that works out at damn near 100,000,000ft² of space – about 220 Gherkins, London-wide. How many the City will attract is, of course, the corporation’s only concern.

Plan 2036 declines to enumerate how many of those jobs will land in the City – wisely perhaps, given its dull-dog image among the under-30s and EY’s worries expressed late last year about 83,000 banking jobs on the line as we Brexit. GLA economists predict 80,000 more jobs in the Square Mile by 2041, up 20% from today’s figure of 400,000. Nearly 20 Gherkins-full. The word ‘office’ has a quill-pen ring; ‘workspace’ has overtones of sweated labour. So let’s first see where the City might allow Friedman’s STEMpathy space.

The bad news is that half the space needed by 2036 has already been designed and granted permission, including 14 towers. “Schemes under construction and permitted but not commenced could accommodate the Local Plan’s projected increase in office jobs in the City up to 2026,” says Plan 36, without mentioning the diameter of the pipeline. But it’s not hard to root out City figures showing a 4,700,000ft² pipeline. Say 10 Gherkins, which sounds about right, given 20 are needed by 2036.

Do not despair. Work has begun on the biggest of the 14 towers, the 1,400,000ft² 22 Bishopsgate scheme. This 67-floor skyscraper will be towering over the City by 2020. It just needs two or three other big developments to begin and a few more to be abandoned and the pipeline will shrivel like a punctured inner tube. Then what? Actually “then where?” is the better question. The Eastern Cluster is where. Think of the gap between the Cheesegrater and the Walkie Talkie and east out to Aldgate.

City tower cluster including consented schemes, with Make’s 1 Leadenhall in the centre foreground. Visualisation courtesy of Millerhare for Brookfield.

Anyone with an interest in the next generation of towers will have been exploring this area since last summer, when the City released a plan delineating an Eastern Cluster. A 3D model of the area has since been produced and published. “This work is at an early stage but has already confirmed the limits of change in the Cluster that include impacts on the wider setting for the Tower of London,” says Plan 36. “The Local Plan review will consider whether any changes should be made to the area of the Cluster.” My italics.

Read that quote carefully, and remember the answer lies in the question. Move on. “What should the City look and feel like in 2036?” is the key question. “The current Local Plan evolved from the 2011 City of London Core Strategy, which was based on evidence collected prior to 2011. The Local Plan now requires updating to address recent development trends and to reflect the City’s emerging priorities and aspirations.” To translate: “The old plan is out of date. We need a new post-Brexit plan.”

Here comes the key phrase: “One option would be to identify a ‘Commercial Core’ where only offices and complementary uses will be permitted, with a more flexible approach to other land uses including housing outside the Commercial Core, though this may impact on space suitable for SMEs.” Bets are hedged, so as not to annoy small businesses. But to baldly translate: “If things get bad, we may need to delineate a formal Central Business District – the sort of thing that most other cities on the planet operate.”

A CBD would include Broadgate, and maybe further north and east into areas where under-30s might feel comfortable. “There may be potential for further business intensification in this area, particularly linking with the Tech City area around Shoreditch and Old Street.” Groovy. Meaning more developments like the 320,000ft² Fruit and Wool Exchange, now being rebuilt by Exemplar. But what might fill the areas between a new CBD and the 2,000-year-old Roman boundaries of the Square Mile?

1 Leadenhall, by Make, along Leadenhall Street. The scheme received a resolution to grant planning consent in January 2017. Visualisation courtesy of Millerhare for Brookfield.

More homes? A few. “Should we indicate where further residential development would be permitted?” asks Plan 36. The GLA is pressing for the present 110-units-a-year ceiling to be raised to 141 a year. The City has 8,000 full-time residents and 1,400 second-home owners. There is no indication more would be welcome. Over 200 flats are being built near St Bartholomew’s Hospital, close to Smithfield Market, an ancient blood-soaked spot which gets wary attention in Plan 36.

“Smithfield has been the home of a meat market for hundreds of years […] we will need to reconcile the needs of the meat market with greater pedestrian pressure resulting from Crossrail and the emerging Cultural Hub.” For “emerging cultural hub,” read the by-no-means-certain relocation of the Museum of London to empty market buildings. Will meat-trading be replaced by a Leadenhall-in-the-West gallery of shops and cafés? Maybe. But any proposal risks the porters’ terrible wrath. Don’t bank on it happening before 2036.

Make’s 40 Leadenhall Street scheme, which will house up to 10,000 people upon completion, is one of the biggest schemes to ever receive planning permission in the City. Visualisation courtesy of DBOX.

 

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The green tiger

 

 

Environmental design consultant Henry Woon of Atelier Ten speaks to architecture writer Sylvia Chan about what makes Singapore one of the world’s most sustainable cities.

 

Tell us about the concept of sustainability in the context of Singapore.

In Singapore’s building industry, there is a term called ESD, or Environmental Sustainability Design. Very often the industry assumes that ESD is the same as the environmental benchmarking practice, which is called Green Mark in Singapore. Green Mark is very much similar to BREEAM in the UK. It covers issues on building design such as energy, water, waste, material, biodiversity, construction process and wellbeing. It is a widely practised system in Singapore.

However, at Atelier Ten, we understand sustainability as a much wider concept that goes beyond benchmarking. A bespoke approach is often required for each project to achieve a truly sustainable design. In a way, benchmarking should only be a baseline requirement. We are pushing for a broader concept of sustainability that encompasses more aspects, and the Singapore market is also going towards this direction.

When did the concept of sustainable design start to prevail in Singapore?

I would say around 10 to 15 years ago, when there was a global push for sustainability in the built environment in response to global warming.

Typically, the built environment accounts for 50% of a city’s energy consumption. Singapore is a country well informed of the situation, and the industry has already started to respond to it. Green Mark was set up in 2005. Recently, Singapore also signed up to COP21 and the C40 initiatives dedicated to addressing climate change.

What triggered Singapore to promote sustainable design?

Singapore has very limited land for development. Most of the energy, materials and other resources for consumption are imports. This drove Singapore to focus on developing high-quality and high-performance projects which are less reliant on imported resources. This can increase the resilience of the city-state.

Singapore’s Gardens by the Bay. CREDIT: Jonathan Reid – Arch.Photos

What are some of the signature sustainable projects in Singapore?

I would say the first significant sustainable project is Gardens by the Bay, which was designed by Atelier Ten. The project won a number of awards, including World Building of the Year in 2012. It was designed to be zero-carbon, and sustainability was always at the heart of the project. The gardens feature an educational section at the end of the indoor greenhouse tour. This section highlights global warming issues, and showcases how the built environment and human lifestyle changes can help reduce carbon emissions. It raises environmental awareness at a domestic level.

Another project I would like to mention is the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Campus. The campus is set within the wild nature of Singapore and was designed to blend into nature as much as possible. The cycling network within the campus is very well utilised. The university also has relentless commitment to ensure the sustainable operation on campus. It launched an EcoCampus initiative and developed a campus-wide sustainability framework, aiming to reduce energy, water use and waste intensity by 35% by 2020.

Inside the Learning Hub at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), designed by Heatherwick Studio. CREDIT: Hufton + Crow

Who drives the sustainable design initiatives in Singapore?

The Singapore government has a significant role. A lot of the major developments in Singapore are funded by government agencies. The government is thus both the policymaker and the client. A lot of sustainability policies and their implementation are government-driven. The industry and the government are very much aligned, and sustainability policy implementation is very efficient here.

How does the Singapore government encourage and support sustainable design in the city?

The Building and Construction Authority (BCA) is the main agency in Singapore that sets up environmental and sustainability standards. It also drives their implementation. BCA’s strategies in promoting sustainability design are quite multifaceted. They include policy and regulation-making, initiatives to improve baseline performances, publicity of the Green Mark best practices, and provision of incentives to encourage developers to embrace sustainability measures. One extremely effective measure in incentivising developers to design projects with high environmental performance is additional GFA allowances.

The School of Art, Design and Media at Nanyang Technological University, designed by CPG Consultants.

Singapore has a very high population density. What are some of the unique aspects in sustainable design in the country?

I think the density of the city gives designers and developers the opportunity to establish infrastructure and utilise resources in a more centralised way. An economy and lifestyle that emphasise sharing can facilitate Singapore’s sustainable development. The city-state is moving towards this direction by embracing a smart city economy.

The Sustainable Singapore Blueprint 2015 outlines Singapore’s vision to become more sustainable. What new measures will the city take to achieve this goal?

The blueprint covers a wide range of areas, including sustainable resources, environmental quality and community sustainability. The ‘car-lite’ campaign, transportation infrastructure upgrade, waste recycling (particularly food waste) and drainage treatment are some of the key new measures to enhance sustainability.

The Henderson Waves bridge, designed by RSP, connects Mount Faber Park and Telok Blangah Hill Park, and is a prime example of Singapore’s green infrastructure.

What are the latest smart technologies used for sustainable design in Singapore?

Singapore has the vision to become a Smart Nation and is believed to be in the midst of its fourth industrial revolution. The next phase of Singapore’s growth will be driven by IoT (Internet of Things, or the infrastructure of the information society), data and services, as well as sustainable design principles that will improve work efficiency and quality of life.

I think the key contribution of smart technologies is allowing extensive data collection and monitoring at the right time and the right place. This makes timely action possible. Intelligent and interconnected systems also allow environmental design and operational objectives to be met. This is very powerful, and will change industries, businesses and people’s lives.

What are Singapore’s latest goals in sustainable design?

I think Singapore’s commitment to COP21 has a monumental effect on the nation’s sustainability development. The nation will need to reduce carbon emission intensity by 36% based on the 2005 benchmark, and this is a very ambitious target. The government has also set a goal to retrofit 80% of its buildings by 2030 and rolled out measures to encourage energy efficiency, which will reduce the city-state’s dependence on foreign energy import. All these will help Singapore to maintain its competitiveness in global business.

What sorts of investments or resources are needed to meet these goals?

Resources can go in the form of business initiatives, policies, or education and community projects. Investments in smart technologies and infrastructure are also important. As Singapore is very much a government-led society, policies are usually very well coordinated and can be implemented efficiently to promote sustainability design.

Different cities face different challenges. How can other cities best learn from Singapore’s sustainable design initiatives?

One thing that Singapore has successfully established is a simple, straightforward and standardised set of green building regulations. The Green Mark is a single document that covers all the principles of sustainable design, and it delineates regulations for both residential and commercial buildings. The simplicity of the benchmarking system eliminates conflicting and overlapping regulations that could lead to inefficiency or confusion in the industry. This is very important to a successful approach to sustainable development. If a city simplifies and strengthens its sustainability regulations and clarifies it goals, developers, architects and contractors will be able to understand and comply with them more easily. Singapore is a successful example that illustrates how effective this approach can be.

 

Sylvia Chan specialises in research, writing and public relations in architecture. She is currently a PhD candidate at the University of Hong Kong, and her research interests include architectural representations, translations in architecture and the concept of Chineseness.

Article extracted from Make Annual 13.

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Are you VReady?

Peter Greaves

 

 

Peter Greaves on the great potential of virtual reality in architecture, the best products on the market, and how we’re using VR at Make.

 

The ‘Virtual Renaissance’
Virtual reality (VR) has had a few false starts over the years, but it’s matured into a technology ready for a wide range of consumer and commercial applications. 2016 was heralded as the year of the ‘Virtual Renaissance’, with VR moving beyond its traditional gaming and entertainment sphere into front rooms and business fields as diverse as retail, charity, education and medicine, among others.

With architects now able to use VR software to easily create and interact with computer-generated 3D environments, it’s not hard to envisage virtual reality joining CAD, physical models and the pen as an essential design tool of the future, with architects and clients able to ‘step into’ their designs at the flick of a switch.

Still from the virtual reality setup of a building Still from the virtual reality setup of a building

Exploring buildings with VR
VR is already beginning to influence real estate sales, especially in the United States. Property developers there are using it to sell off-plan homes, with customers responding positively to the opportunity to stand inside an apartment before it’s been built. This illustrates the huge advantage VR has over a CGI on a flatscreen: a realistic sense of scale.

Architects who’ve spent their lives looking at 2D plans and 3D computer models have become experts at interpreting them and imagining the space they’re trying to show. But it’s always tricky to convey this to clients. The most successful method to date has been the physical model, which is much easier to understand than flat approximations of space. But even with the speed and ease afforded by 3D printing, models still have their limitations, namely, that they’re built at a greatly reduced scale, meaning a good amount of imagination is still needed to understand the building. Architects rarely have the freedom to build a 1:1 model of even a single room of a building, and if we do manage to mock up a space, it’s usually late in the design process or even during construction. VR could potentially solve this problem, allowing architects to present fully 3D, 1:1 scale ‘models’ of buildings for clients to explore.

The best VR for architects
The four main products currently on the market for architects that Make is exploring are:

  1. Oculus Rift – kick-starting the current VR renaissance, this headset lets users look around a 3D space. Movement is limited and primarily a seated experience, with the avatar controlled with a standard gaming console controller.
  2. HTC Vive – what we use at Make, the Vive introduces ‘room scale’, with two small tracking lasers that locate the user’s head and the visuals respond as the user walks, jumps or even lies down, creating the sensation of being in a different place – a phenomenon known as ‘presence’. It also uses two wand controllers, similar to the Nintendo Wii’s remote, that let users see their hands and interact with objects within the virtual world. People can use these tracked controllers to paint with a virtual brush, or pan and rotate a model or image, simply by moving their hands.
  3. Google Cardboard – a simpler solution in which users put their smartphone inside a special cardboard box with two lenses and look inside. Here, the smartphone forms the screen and brains of the machine and can produce a visually similar 3D environment to other methods. Apart from that it’s quite limited, but it does have one major advantage: it’s extremely cheap and portable, making it easy to take to meetings or send to clients, who can download an app or model and view it in 360-degree, 3D video.
  4. PlayStation VR – promises some of the more impressive VR features at an affordable price point, which many predict will be what brings this product to living rooms across the globe. Clients, once they’ve tried on their children’s VR goggles and look around the fantastical worlds developers are creating, might rightly ask, “Why can’t I walk around in my BIM model?”

Woman using HTC Vive    Man using HTC Vive

VR at Make
At Make, we’ve used our HTC Vive on several projects so far, allowing clients to view and even ‘stand inside’ their building at full scale as we design it. The response has been overwhelmingly positive: we can more easily explain our design decisions, and they can more easily understand the building. Take ceiling height, for example: you can try to explain how certain dimensions will feel, but it’s far more effective to put a client inside the room and let them see for themselves. It’s also far less time consuming and expensive than mocking up a false ceiling somewhere. BIM modelling has such a high level of detail that a good VR tour of the model can offer a full-scale mock-up of the whole building before a single spade has broken ground.

We’ve also started printing our own version of Google Cardboard viewers to send out to clients. These can be posted flat and sent alongside project documents, drawings and renders to offer an additional description of the building, either as an immersive environment or a 3D video and flyby. The ability to convey a true sense of scale, even in this simple form, is a powerful addition to our current forms of media.

VR and the future of architecture
VR is certain to have a tremendous impact on how we communicate our designs to clients and make design decisions. Simulating the way light enters a room, the way sound insulation reacts to ambient noise, even evoking a sense of place – this and more is on the horizon once VR is combined with existing and emerging technologies.

Integrating this level of immersion into the design process will undoubtedly lead to better-realised visions and more successful designs in the future, not just at Make but across the industry at large.

Woman using VR headset

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Relevant Cities

By John Prevc

Cities need to keep pace with societal changes in order to ensure that they remain relevant for their inhabitants. This means designing flexible and adaptable cities where streets, spaces and buildings are able to slowly metamorphosize into places that resonate in their own time. Cities need to mature carefully, keeping the best and most significant markers of their culture and identity and hence preserving their individuality and essence.

We are unable to accurately guess where we will be even in the not-too-distant future. Keeping our cities relevant for the communities that inhabit them requires an understanding of the human condition and in particular our social and economic interdependence and our need to exchange information with each other. The human condition is consistent and universal, adapting to the context of place and time. Relevant cities are therefore a product of time and how we as humans interface with it.

Today’s relevant cities

Successful cities are cities that offer people opportunities to improve their lives. Whether it’s through an increase in employment opportunities, better housing, a well-established social infrastructure, a connected and well-maintained transport system or simply a cool place to be and hang out, it’s choice that’s the differentiator.

So how do successful cities optimise choice? We believe that one of the most significant factors is greater density. The exchange of information is at the heart of both economic and social success in the community. Through increased density connections are improved. Dense cities encourage social inclusion, foster business development, improve connections between members of the community and help to reinforce identity and a sense of place through design excellence.

High density life

High density brings life to the city

How do we deliver design excellence within a high-density city location? Our starting point would be to ask the community what it is that they feel they need. Consulting with the community and broader stakeholders will make cities more relevant. The specifics of place and the maintenance of uniqueness is something that lives in those who experience the area on a day-to-day basis. It is when a community is asked to adopt a commercial or political vision imposed from those on the outside that relevance is lost.

We can no longer consider the family unit in the traditional way. We are a more mobile society, more often than not living away from our families as we follow work opportunities. We live on our own for much longer at both ends of our lives and the fear of isolation brings us closer to those living and working around us. Our city communities are an extended family and often bring more relevance to our lives than our own blood line.

These social changes, together with an escalation in property prices especially in London, suggest that homes need to become more affordable either through a policy of subsidy or/and the consideration of smaller homes for single person habitation. Smaller homes will not however help families with children. Families with children are finding it increasingly difficult to afford three and four bedroom homes. If we are to encourage whole life city living and a more balanced community we will need to build variety of size and tenure.

Cities with greater densities encourage people to walk and cycle as distances between destinations are reduced and more accessible. Improvements in health and wellbeing are tangible results of this, with all of the social, environmental and economic benefits that this brings. The reduction in the pace of movement increases opportunities for people to meet informally and exchange information. This improves social cohesion and has economic benefit. It also makes for a more vibrant and active public realm which is safer.

Lower car use

Dense cities have lower car use than small suburban towns

Dense cities are green cities in both the physical and figurative sense. They offer visual and functional amenity at all scales, from the balcony to the private garden through to the public square and park. Density is a balance between building and open space giving people an environment where there are clear and well-defined boundaries between their public and private lives.

Density improves choice not only in terms of jobs and housing but also in terms of the types of goods and services available on the high street. Competition increases choice, reduces costs and improves quality. A significant population within the local community allows the market to offer a bespoke service which is adaptive and flexible following the societal needs which it will reflect if it is to be successful. For cities to remain relevant they need to be nimble and responsive adapting to the community they serve.

Flexible buildings

Flexible cities enable buildings to evolve with time

 

This essay was extracted from the Future Spaces Foundation report: Vital Cities not Garden Cities: the answer to the nation’s housing shortage?

 

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The future of architecture – Katy Ghahremani

We asked ten architects – each of whom joined Make in a different year since 2004 – to write about how they see architecture and the built environment changing over the next ten years. Here is the first of those responses.

 

Katy Ghahremani profile picture

Katy Ghahremani
Make Partner since 2004

As proven by empirical research (ZZA Responsive User Environments, 2011), ‘third place’ working is the new norm. The boundaries in people’s lives are blurring: there is no longer a clear-cut separation between work and play, in either physical location or time of day. We therefore require the spaces around us to change in the future, to reflect our new way of living, working and playing.

‘Third places’ blur the boundaries between activities and functions; coffee shops, private members’ clubs, library spaces, residents’ lounges – these are all private/public places that are not defined by a single activity. They are public to the extent that the user has no responsibility for their maintenance or management, yet they are private in that the users have some sort of commonality – either through geographical location or interest.

This concept is evolving into an everyday occurrence with the advancement of technology, yet the design of places and buildings is only just catching up. Enlightened developers and operators are investing in delivering these ‘third places’ within their buildings. Although it is difficult to quantify the revenue generated solely by these ‘third places’, we can see their impact in the increase in value of the building/development and the increase in interest by end-users and tenants.

Katy Ghahremani quote

We are now seeing this concept extend beyond the design of interiors into overall architecture and, on a bigger scale, masterplans. There is an increase in developers seeking architects who have a broader view of design and are less specialised in a particular typology. This will allow architects to be able to bring in ideas and concepts from other typologies – to create ‘third places’ both on a micro and a macro scale.

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Developing a design for the facade of 7–10 Hanover Square

By Catherine Bertola

‘My design for the facade is inspired by eighteenth-century woven Spitalfield silk, which was produced in London during the period when Hanover Square was established. When it was first built, Hanover Square was a very fashionable residential address whose inhabitants dressed in the finest silk and lace. In the nineteenth century the square became more commercial in nature and was home to a range of tailors, milliners, embroiderers and other textile traders. Fabric is therefore woven into the history of the site, making it a fitting concept for the public art commission. The contemporary appropriation of a historic pattern on the facade will create an interesting connection to the origins of the square.

In order for the work to have a specific resonance with the history of the site, I chose an appropriation of an eighteenth-century silk design produced for King George II’s coronation canopy. George II was Great Britain’s second Hanoverian king – the dynasty after which Hanover Square was named. Spitalfield silk was designed and manufactured a short distance from the site and was among the most expensive and coveted silk of its time. The original fabric would have been woven from gold thread and the finest coloured silk and stood as a symbol of the King’s status and wealth. I felt that the association with luxury and quality was appropriate for a building of this calibre.

1. An 18th century silk design produced for King George II's coronation canopy. 2. The final facade design; the different tones represent different depths of carving.

1. An 18th century silk design produced for King George II’s coronation canopy.
2. The final facade design; the different tones represent different depths of carving.

The artwork needs to complement the architecture so that the two co-exist symbiotically. I found that the nature of the new building lends itself to bold, abstract imagery. Damask patterns are formed from symmetrical block repeats, which can cover a surface more densely than other types of pattern. One of the advantages of this particular design is that it is easily scalable; it can be expanded to cover more of the surface or reduced to cover less, without losing its impact or integrity.

It is important that the pattern is visible from a distance as people approach the building, while also having an element of detail that is revealed on closer observation. It is formed from motifs of different scales; larger, bolder forms are framed and intersected with more complex, intricate detailing. From a distance the pattern is striking and instantly recognisable, while the detail provides visual interest when viewed at close quarters. The pattern sweeps across the two facades, uniting the surface and giving the sense of wrapping the building. The mass is concentrated on the corner, although the focus is on the principal facade and accentuates the primary entrance.

The pattern has been simplified for use on a contemporary building and adapted for the technical purposes of carving into stone. It will be carved at different depths to give a sculptural feel and add a visual richness to the surface, creating a dynamic play of shadow and light that will animate the facades. The motifs have been separated into four layers which correspond to a specific surface depth. The first layer is the face of the facade itself; the second layer sits proud of the facade; and the remaining two layers are cut into the facade. The various depths will weather differently over time, further accentuating the pattern and allowing it to take on a life of its own.’

You can find out more about the project on our website: www.makearchitects.com/projects/7-10-hanover-square/

Biography
Catherine Bertola was born in Rugby in 1976. She studied Fine Art at Newcastle University and currently lives and works in Gateshead. She has collaborated on a broad range of commissions and exhibitions, both nationally and internationally, with institutions such as the Museum of Arts and Design (USA), Kunsthalle zu Kiel (Germany), Artium (Spain), the National Museum Wales, the V&A, the Whitworth Art Gallery, the Government Art Collection and the National Trust (UK).
 
Bluestockings (Fanny Burney), 2009, pen on paper, 85 x 135cm. (c) Colin Davison

Bluestockings (Fanny Burney), 2009, pen on paper, 85 x 135cm.
(c) Colin Davison

Layer/s, lost without trace, 2009, dust, PVA, paper and tacks. (c) Jerry Hardman Jones

Layer/s, lost without trace, 2009, dust, PVA, paper and tacks.
(c) Jerry Hardman Jones

Unfurling Splendour (Adaptation II), 2009, dust and PVA, 600 x 300cm. (c) Greg Clement

Unfurling Splendour (Adaptation II), 2009, dust and PVA, 600 x 300cm.
(c) Greg Clement


		
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